THEORY I find dictionaries to be one of the greatest sources of MU's, particuarly on subjects that are close to the truth. True original meanings are defined out of existence, and replaced with meanings that leave no room for thought about the original. (MU means Mis-Understood word, mechanism or intent.) There are two kinds of logic, inductive logic and deductive logic. Inductive logic allows us to generalize from a finite number of observations. Only the observations are certain. We observe that 100 apples fall when dropped, and so we conclude that all apples will fall, and always have and always will. We generalize from the certain observation that "100 apples fell," to the uncertain theory that "all apples fall." All apples fall is called a theory. Only one observation to the contrary will prove it wrong, and no number of observations supporting it will ever prove it right. Theories are born to die in obscurity as observations move on. But don't tell a theoretician this, as it gives him the willies. Deductive logic goes in the opposite direction, it starts with a theory, and tries to predict what will happen in a specific circumstance. All apples fall (theory), and this is an apple (observation), so it too will fall (prediction). We drop the apple, and it falls, so our prediction turns out true, thus supporting the original theory that all apples fall. The irony is that inductive logic is based on perfect certainties, namely the original observations, but can never give us a certainty in a generalized theory. Deductive logic is based on these very same theoretical uncertainties, Thus one certain observation contradicting the uncertain theory disproves the uncertain theory with certainty. Do not confuse the words induction and deduction with the word inference. Inference comes from To Infer, is the process of induction *OR* deduction. One induces/infers from the observation that 100 apples fell the theory that all apples fall. One deduces/infers from the theory that all apples fall, that the next apple will probably also fall. Inference is the process of logic, whether inductive or deductive. So we get, 1.) Certain observations 2.) Induction: Certain Observatons -> Uncertain theory/generalization 3.) Deduction: Theory -> predictions 4.) Certain observation of the opposite of the prediction. 5.) Certain disproof of the original theory. There is no room for confusion or misinterpretation with the above, it says what it says, and nothing more or less or else. People who are certain they can't be certain of anything, and those who are certain of things that no one can be certain of, will choose to argue with the above, but in the end its all their yap and natter, and is wind between their ears. Like people who mention that logic isn't logical and mis quote Godel, whom they hardly know, and barely understand, to logically prove that logic is illogical, well they just are not worth talking to. That logic may be 'incomplete', ie capable of producing undecidable propositions, does not mean that logic is wrong where the propositions are decidable. *THE UNDECIDABILITY OF ANY PROPOSITION WILL NEVER AFFECT THE DECIDABILITY OF A DECIDABLE PROPOSITON.* Thus the mere fact that logic or math or algebra are incomplete, and can produce undecidable propositions, in no way lessens the absolute truth of the propositions which are decidable. Is is Is, Is isnot IsNot. IsNot is IsNot, IsNot isnot Is. That's a hard one on the mental loony tunes, but it's absoluteness is unquestionable. Since the above little ditty in is and is not absolutely and irrevokably describes the nature of one's own consciousness, consciousness then is a standard bearer of the nature and meaning of is and is not. As much as I like dictionaries, and as much as mine does a relatively good job of defining the words in question, even this one skirts around the issues. To speculate means merely to think about. To conjecture means to speculate about, but also means to posit with out certainty. The best words are to suppose, to pretend something is true in order to see where it leads. Theories are, in the end, guesses that make predictions that either are observed or not. Only observations are certain, no theory is ever certain. For one, certainty has to do with truth, theories have little or nothing to do with truth, they only deal with models that work. Workability does not mean true. Notice the statement that only observations are certain does not imply that ALL observations are certain, although I would assert this to be true also. Just because we SEE space, doesn't mean there IS space, but it does mean we SEE space. Get it? That we SEE the moon bigger on the horizon doesn't mean the moon IS bigger on the horizon, but it does mean we SEE the moon bigger. Seeing the moon bigger is the observation. Claiming that the moon is therefore bigger is the theory. Other observations can be made which then counter the theory. The observation is always certain, the implied referent may or may not be as you are seeing it. Often the referent doesn't exist in any actual sense at all. It's an illusion that the moon is bigger on the horizon, but sorry ladies it's also an illusion that the moon exists at all except in the dream you call your life. That we all dream the same thing at the same time is interesting, but not proof that anything more than a co dream is taking place. Collapsing conscious observation and physical referent is the act of the insane. Homer THEORY: 1.) Systematically organized knowledge applicable in a relatively wide variety of circumstances; especially, a system of *ASSUMPTIONS*, accepted principles, and rules of procedure devised to analyze, predict or otherwise explain the nature or behavior of a specified set of (observed) phenomnenon. 1b.) Such knowledge or such a system distinguished from experiment or practice. 2.) Abstract reasoning; speculation. 3.) Broadly, hypothesis or supposition. SPECULATION: 1.) Speculating, to meditate on a given subject, reflect. 2.) A conclusion, opinion, or theory reached by speculating. CONJECTURE: 1.) To infer from inconclusive evidence, to guess. 2.) An opinion or conclusion based on inference. INFERENCE: 1.) To conclude from evidence, deduce through deductive logic or to induce through inductive logic. HYPOTHETICAL 1.) Of or based on a hypothesis, suppositional, conjectural or uncertain. - ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Homer Wilson Smith The Paths of Lovers Art Matrix - Lightlink (607) 277-0959 KC2ITF Cross Internet Access, Ithaca NY homer@lightlink.com In the Line of Duty http://www.lightlink.com Sat Mar 10 23:51:26 EST 2007 ================ http://www.clearing.org ==================== Fri Feb 20 03:06:06 EST 2015 ftp://ftp.lightlink.com/pub/archive/homer/adore467.memo Send mail to archive@lightlink.com saying help ================== http://www.lightlink.com/theproof =================== Learning implies Learning with Certainty or Learning without Certainty. Learning across a Distance implies Learning by Being an Effect. Learning by Being an Effect implies Learning without Certainty. Therefore, Learning with Certainty implies Learning, but not by Being an Effect, and not across a Distance. -----BEGIN PGP SIGNATURE----- Version: GnuPG v1.4.5 (GNU/Linux) iD8DBQFU5uruURT1lqxE3HERAo9cAKDZq0WG12wA67oICUnQYhMvEoLQ8ACg2e5q 0AMuNYNF6kOy/smopswAaQ0= =vmJs -----END PGP SIGNATURE----- Sun Feb 22 17:37:54 EST 2015